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By Roger D. Norton

Ready below the aegis of the nutrition and Agriculture association of the United international locations (FAO), this article provides a clean and accomplished examine agricultural improvement coverage. It offers a transparent, systematic evaluate of significant sessions of coverage concerns in constructing nations and discusses the rising foreign consensus on achievable methods to the problems.

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In many developing countries, nutrition levels are still deficient among a significant part of the rural population, although it is important to recognize that, for the world as a whole, the share of the population in poverty has dropped markedly over the past three decades. What sub-objectives, if achieved, will best enable agriculture to meet these overall objectives? In many parts of the world, it has long been the practice to define the aim of agricultural development strategy as increasing production levels.

The third main class of policy instrument in many countries has been direct management of production and marketing through State-owned enterprises which have spanned a wide range, from production collectives, sawmills and fisheries corporations to banks and marketing enterprises. The tendency in most parts of the world has been to reduce State ownership of assets in the sector, although the pace of those changes varies from region to region. Now that there is a growing international consensus that direct government interventions in the economy generally should be reduced, along with fiscal expenditures, the question of what is agricultural policy (and what is the role of a Ministry of Agriculture) comes more sharply into focus.

In all countries, fiscal outlays have been made for a variety of purposes in the sector. A few of the more prominent forms of expenditure have been investment in infrastructure for purposes such as irrigation, crop storage, transportation and marketing, direct provision of credit to producers and subsidization of private credit, the funding of research, extension and seed production, financing the deficits incurred by programs of purchasing grains from farmers at high prices and selling them to consumers at lower prices, and direct payments under land setaside programs or other support programs.

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